Cheyenne Mountain Zoo is continuing to create solutions to ensure that the palm oil you consume is sustainable. Learn more below about how you can support orangutans and palm oil by using companies committed to sustainable palm oil that is deforestation-free.
Patent medicines originated in England, where a patent was granted to Richard Stoughton's elixir in 1712. There were no federal regulations in the United States concerning the safety and effectiveness of drugs until the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act. Thus, the widespread marketing and availability of dubiously advertised patent medicines without known properties or origin persisted in the US for a much greater number of years than in Europe.
Safe and efficient bulk oil systems that both store and transfer automotive style fluids may be the most simple, yet impactful investment for your business, whether you are the small town service shop or a large fleet maintenance facility. You can depend upon our fluid storage tanks, system solutions and high flow transfer equipment to simplify your workflow, to maximize efficiency, and to reduce fluid expenses for customers of both large and small shop operations, alike.
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Questions regarding well permitting and related activities, or operational issues should be directed to the appropriate regional office based on where the well is proposed or located. Questions regarding statewide policy, financial security or regulatory fees should be directed to Central Office in Albany.
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You can use catnip oil in your home by mixing a few drops with 1 part water and 1 part rubbing alcohol and spraying it wherever you need to repel cockroaches. You can also combine it with rosemary oil for a particularly potent roach repellent.
You can mix several drops of the oregano oil with water and spray it generously in areas where you suspect cockroaches are hiding and areas from which you want them to stay away. It should force the cockroaches to avoid those areas for a few days, at least.
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Today, oil palm is crucial to the economies of many countries, especially Indonesia and Malaysia, from which large quantities of its products are exported in the form of oil, meal and other derivatives (Murphy 2019). More widely, oil palm is now cultivated in plantations across the humid tropics of Asia, Africa and the Americas, from where its products are exported to global markets. However, despite its increasing cultivation on three widely separated continents, the vast majority of oil palm is still grown in the two adjacent South East (SE) Asian countries of Indonesia and Malaysia (Table 1) that generate about 85% of the entire global production (Murphy 2014, 2015, 2019; Statista 2020; Goggin and Murphy 2018). The major importing regions, collectively responsible for about 60% of total palm oil imports, are the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) with about 17 Mt, the EU-27 with 6.5 Mt, and China with 5 Mt (Statisa 2020).
In addition to its edible applications, the oil palm crop provides a wide range of non-food products that also include animal feeds. These feeds are derived from the seeds or kernels, which contain a protein-rich meal residue following oil extraction. Palm kernel meal is an often overlooked product of the crop, but is a useful livestock feedstuff that is exported globally. In 2019, about 7.6 Mt palm kernel meal was exported, almost exclusively (98%) from Indonesia and Malaysia (Indexmundi 2021). In order of importance, the major importing countries (75% of total 2019 imports) are the EU, New Zealand and Japan, where the meal is used in a variety of feed formulations, especially for ruminants such as cattle.
In SE Asia, the primary regions for oil palm production in Indonesia are Sumatra and Kalimantan (Paterson et al. 2015; Suryantini and Wilandari 2018), while in Malaysia the peninsula was the historical centre, although considerable expansion has occurred more recently in Sabah and Sarawak. Due their climatic suitability, oil palm cultivation has also spread to other SE Asian countries, especially Thailand and Papua New Guinea, with Myanmar and the Philippines in the initial stages of development where the crop is important to the economies of each of these countries (Corley and Tinker 2015; Suryantini and Wilandari 2018; Pornsuriya et al. 2013; Somnuek et al. 2016; Woods 2015). Due to its profitability, there are also significant emerging oil palm industries in much of tropical Africa with Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Sierra Leon, Benin, Angola, and DRC as the main producers (in that order) (Paterson 2021a). However, in most cases African oil palm crops are mainly used for local consumption, with Cameroon and Ivory Coast as the only major palm oil exporters (Corley and Tinker 2015). Nigeria is the fifth highest producer globally, with an annual 1·0 Mt, although this is dwarfed by Indonesia with 42.5 Mt and Malaysia with 18.5 Mt (Statista 2020).
In summary, oil palm cultivation is still highly concentrated in SE Asia, but the focus of future expansion is likely to be elsewhere in the humid tropics, especially in West Africa and northern regions of South America. Therefore, the oil palm industry is a hybrid of large scale, globally focussed, commercial farming and small scale production of a cash crop, often for local consumption. As discussed below, the industry must manage the effects of environmental factors, such as climate change and increased disease incidence on cropping systems, as well as changing consumer sentiments in export destinations.
Several studies have examined the potential impact of land use and climate change on biodiversity in Borneo, where a great deal of oil palm planting has occurred during the past decade (Scriven et al. 2015; Gaveau et al. 2016). Recommendations from these and other studies, include the need to establish nature reserves in upland areas where climate change will be less severe and also to improve connections between reserves and plantations via wildlife corridors (Scriven et al. 2019). One of the most controversial aspects of new palm cultivation in SE Asia is the use of tropical peatland, especially in Borneo. There are several ongoing studies of the impact of peatland conversion in terms of GHG emissions, and other environmental studies have been carried out in association with the major certification scheme that is run by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Examples include the following articles: (Gunarso et al. 2013; Chase et al. 2012; Dalal and Shanmugam 2015; Tonks et al. 2017; Cook 2018).
BSR may increase further by natural selection of more virulent strains and oil palm cannot always adapt rapidly enough to respond to changes in pathogen virulence. The BSR pathogen has the ability to infect oil palm plants at a rate of as much as 80% incidence over half of its economic life span (Corley and Tinker 2015). Ganoderma is a variable genus with poorly defined species concepts and will adapt to climate change more readily than oil palm via natural selection of more virulent strains (Mercière et al. 2017). In Indonesia, BSR is less severe in Kalimantan than in Sumatra, probably due to younger crop rotations (Suryantini and Wilandari 2018; Paterson 2019a, b, 2020d). In Thailand, national BSR incidence is relatively low with a reported rate of 1.53%, although it is more widespread in the south (Basal stem rot of oil palm 2020). In Southern Thailand, BSR incidence may be influenced by proximity to peninsular Malaysia where disease rates are also high (Pornsuriya et al. 2013). In Papua New Guinea, BSR incidence is not as high as in other areas of SE Asia, although rates of 50% have been recorded in some regions. An average of 25% infection is a plausible scenario for this country as the initial incidence is lower than in Malaysia and Indonesia. BSR incidence is probably low in Myanmar as the plantations are more recent and distances between them are large. Myanmar has a distinctly different climate to the rest of SE Asia and is less capable of growing oil palm per se (Paterson 2020b). 781b155fdc